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PCO Syndrome E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Sunday, 25 April 2010 22:07

 

POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

( PCO )

 

What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ?

PCO is known as a "hormonal imbalance". Women suffering from this condition do not ovulate ( they don't release egg cells from a follicle that developed in the ovary. Ovulation usually occurs regularly, around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle. The follicles start to develop the normal way but the follicles do not rupture and no egg cells are released. Consequently there are multiple follicles and cysts in the ovary. (A cyst is just a large follicle more than 25 - 30 mm in diameter). Hence the name polycystic ovaries meaning ovaries with many cysts.

PCO lebih deikanl sebagai ketidak seimbangan hormone. Wanita yang menderita kondisi ini biasanya mereka tidak ovulasi. ( Ovulasi adalah pelepasan sel telur dari follicle yang dikembangan di dalam ovarium. Ovulasi biasanya terjadi sekitar 14 hari dari 28 hari siklus haid. Follicles mulai berkembang dengan cara normal tetapi follicle tidak memisah dan tidak ada sel telur yang dilepas. Konsekuensinya ada banyak follicle dan kista di dalam indung telur. Sebuah kista hanya lebih besar lebih dari 25 – 30 mm diameternya. Oleh karena itu nama polycystic ovaries berarti indung telur – indung telur dengan banyak kista-kista.

PCO causes menstrual abnormalities due to the absence of ovulation. The absence of ovulation means an absence of progesterone and therefore an abnormal endometrium.

PCO ini menyebabkan menstruasi tidak normal karena tidak adanya ovulasi. Tidak adanya ovulasi berarti tidak adanya  hormone progresterone dan oleh karena itu endometriumnya jadi tidak normal.

With PCOS, women typically have:

  • High levels of androgens (AN-druh-junz). These are sometimes called male hormones, though females also make them.
  • Missed or irregular periods (monthly bleeding).
  • Many small cysts (sists) (fluid-filled sacs) in their ovaries

Wanita yang mengidap PCO biasanya mempunyai ciri-ciri sbb :

  •  kadar hormon androgennya (hormon laki-laki ) tinggi.
  • Tidak ada haid atau haidnya tidak teratur.
  • Banyak kista - kista di dalam indung telur mereka.

How many women have PCOS ?

Between 1 in 10 and 1 in 20 women of childbearing age has PCOS. As many as 5 million women in the United States may be affected. It can occur in girls as young as 11 years old.

What causes PCOS?

The cause of PCOS is unknown. But most experts think that several factors, including environmental factors, life style and genetics, could play a role. Women with PCOS are more likely to have a mother or sister with PCOS.

Penyebab PCO ini belum diketahui. Tetapi banyak ahli berpikir bahwa ada beberapa factor lingkungan, gaya hidup dan genetics yang memainkan sebuah peran. Wanita yang dengan PCO biasanya memiliki ibu atau saudari kandung dengan PCO juga.

A main underlying problem with PCOS is a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries make more androgens than normal. Androgens are male hormones that females also make. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation.

Researchers also think insulin may be linked to PCOS. Insulin is a hormone that controls the change of sugar, starches, and other food into energy for the body to use or store. Many women with PCOS have too much insulin in their bodies because they have problems using it. Excess insulin appears to increase production of androgen. High androgen levels can lead to:

  • Acne
  • Excessive hair growth
  • Weight gain
  • Problems with ovulation

What are the symptoms of PCOS ?

The symptoms of PCOS can vary from woman to woman. Some of the symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Infertility (not able to get pregnant) because of not ovulating. In fact, PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility.
  • Infrequent, absent, and/or irregular menstrual periods
  • Hirsutism (HER-suh-tiz-um) — increased hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, back, thumbs, or toes
  • Cysts on the ovaries
  • Acne, oily skin, or dandruff
  • Weight gain or obesity, usually with extra weight around the waist
  • Male-pattern baldness or thinning hair
  • Patches of skin on the neck, arms, breasts, or thighs that are thick and dark brown or black
  • Skin tags — excess flaps of skin in the armpits or neck area
  • Pelvic pain
  • Anxiety or depression
  • Sleep apnea — when breathing stops for short periods of time while asleep

Why do women with PCOS have trouble with their menstrual cycle and fertility?

The ovaries, where a woman’s eggs are produced, have tiny fluid-filled sacs called follicles or cysts. As the egg grows, the follicle builds up fluid. When the egg matures, the follicle breaks open, the egg is released, and the egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus (womb) for fertilization. This is called ovulation.

In women with PCOS, the ovary doesn't make all of the hormones it needs for an egg to fully mature. The follicles may start to grow and build up fluid but ovulation does not occur. Instead, some follicles may remain as cysts. For these reasons, ovulation does not occur and the hormone progesterone is not made. Without progesterone, a woman's menstrual cycle is irregular or absent. Plus, the ovaries make male hormones, which also prevent ovulation.


 

Does PCOS put women at risk for other health problems?

Women with PCOS have greater chances of developing several serious health conditions, including life-threatening diseases. Recent studies found that:

  • More than 50 percent of women with PCOS will have diabetes or pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance) before the age of 40.
  • The risk of heart attack is 4 to 7 times higher in women with PCOS than women of the same age without PCOS.
  • Women with PCOS are at greater risk of having high blood pressure.
  • Women with PCOS have high levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol.
  • Women with PCOS can develop sleep apnea. This is when breathing stops for short periods of time during sleep.

Women with PCOS may also develop anxiety and depression. It is important to talk to your doctor about treatment for these mental health conditions.

Women with PCOS are also at risk for endometrial cancer. Irregular menstrual periods and the lack of ovulation cause women to produce the hormone estrogen, but not the hormone progesterone. Progesterone causes the endometrium (lining of the womb) to shed each month as a menstrual period. Without progesterone, the endometrium becomes thick, which can cause heavy or irregular bleeding. Over time, this can lead to endometrial hyperplasia, when the lining grows too much, and cancer.

If you have PCOS, get your symptoms under control at an earlier age to help reduce your chances of having complications like diabetes and heart disease. Talk to your doctor about treating all your symptoms, rather than focusing on just one aspect of your PCOS, such as problems getting pregnant. Also, talk to your doctor about getting tested for diabetes regularly. Other steps you can take to lower your chances of health problems include:

  • Eating right
  • Exercising
  • Not smoking

You can find out more about PCOS from the  book below, click the cion below to see detail :






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Last Updated on Wednesday, 16 March 2011 22:46
 


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